The psychological effects of divorce on children may include depression and conduct disorders, notes Psychology Today. Breaking up a family leads to feelings of confusion, abandonment and separation anxiety due to children’s dependence on their parents for love, support and guidance while growing up.
Children’s psychological reaction to divorce varies a great deal, according to Psychology Today. Their reactions depend on the nature of their relationship with each parent, the intensity and length of their parents’ divorce, how much they see each parent after the divorce and their personality.
Boys and girls suffer equally if their parents go through a lengthy and messy divorce, explains PsychPage.
However, boys act out their frustration and anger. Girls are more likely to internalize their emotions, which can result in depression, physical discomfort or changes in their eating and sleeping habits.
When parents divorce, it is important to maintain routine and stability in their children’s lives, explains Psychology Today.
It is all too common for children, especially adolescents, to become isolated from their divorced parents. Sometimes this isolation can take years to overcome. Children who continue to have a balanced relationship with both parents after a divorce typically cope better in the long run.
It is all too common for children, especially adolescents, to become isolated from their divorced parents. Sometimes this isolation can take years to overcome. Children who continue to have a balanced relationship with both parents after a divorce typically cope better in the long run.
Learn this Powerful Approach to Effective Facilitation
I facilitated a 24/7 Dad® training for the Family Resource Center South Atlantic (FRCSA) last January in Raleigh, NC. When I returned a month later to deliver a second training on our InsideOut Dad® program, I was amazed at how proficient they had become facilitating 24/7 Dad® in only a few weeks!
Dr. Koziol and entire team at Leon Koziol.com attend
Trump rally in Albany, New York. Our report of court corruption and reform was hand delivered to campaign staff.
By Dr. Leon R. Koziol
Is there any one out there who will take solid steps to end the abuse of parents in America’s divorce and family courts?
Among the presidential candidates we all know the answer, and that’s Donald Trump.
Numerous elections have come and gone over the past fifty years and yet here we are still warring over our children in these barbaric tribunals that enrich lawyers at the expense of our children.
How many parents can truly say they got a fair shake in these courts?
While the scandals, bribes and misconduct become exposed, the corruption is only escalating. And most of it is overlooked unlike other branches of government.
It’s up to us to reform this system, to replace mandatory custody awards with a shared parenting framework, to rein in over-billing lawyers who profit from needless orchestrated court battles, and take back our courts.
Intellectuals fretting about income disparity are oddly silent regarding the decline of the two-parent family.
An excerpt from this article:
Suppose a scientific conference on cancer prevention never addressed smoking, on the grounds that in a free society you can’t change private behavior, and anyway, maybe the statistical relationships between smoking and cancer are really caused by some other third variable. Wouldn’t some suspect that the scientists who raised these claims were driven by something—ideology, tobacco money—other than science?
Yet in the current discussions about increased inequality, few researchers, fewer reporters, and no one in the executive branch of government directly addresses what seems to be the strongest statistical correlate of inequality in the United States: the rise of single-parent families during the past half century.
The two-parent family has declined rapidly in recent decades. In 1960, more than 76% of African-Americans and nearly 97% of whites were born to married couples. Today the percentage is 30% for blacks and 70% for whites. The out-of-wedlock birthrate for Hispanics surpassed 50% in 2006. This trend, coupled with high divorce rates, means that roughly 25% of American children now live in single-parent homes, twice the percentage in Europe (12%). Roughly a third of American children live apart from their fathers.
Does it matter? Yes, it does. From economist Susan Mayer’s 1997 book “What Money Can’t Buy” to Charles Murray’s “Coming Apart” in 2012, clear-eyed studies of the modern family affirm the conventional wisdom that two parents work better than one.
“Americans have always thought that growing up with only one parent is bad for children,” Ms. Mayer wrote. “The rapid spread of single-parent families over the past generation does not seem to have altered this consensus much.”
In an essay for the Institute for Family Studies last December, called “Even for Rich Kids, Marriage Matters,” University of Virginia sociologist W. Bradford Wilcox reported that children in high-income households who experienced family breakups don’t fare as well emotionally, psychologically, educationally or, in the end, economically as their two-parent-family peers.
Abuse, behavioral problems and psychological issues of all kinds, such as developmental behavior problems or concentration issues, are less common for children of married couples than for cohabiting or single parents, according to a 2003 Centers for Disease Control study of children’s health. The causal pathways are about as clear as those from smoking to cancer.
More than 20% of children in single-parent families live in poverty long-term, compared with 2% of those raised in two-parent families, according to education-policy analyst Mitch Pearlstein’s 2011 book “From Family Collapse to America’s Decline.” The poverty rate would be 25% lower if today’s family structure resembled that of 1970, according to the 2009 report “Creating an Opportunity Society” from Brookings Institution analysts Ron Haskins and Isabel Sawhill. A 2006 article in the journal Demography by Penn State sociologist Molly Martin estimates that 41% of the economic inequality created between 1976-2000 was the result of changed family structure.
Earlier this year, a team of researchers led by Harvard economist Raj Chetty reported that communities with a high percentage of single-parent families are less likely to experience upward mobility. The researchers’ report—”Where Is the Land of Opportunity?”—received considerable media attention. Yet mainstream news outlets tended to ignore the study’s message about family structure, focusing instead on variables with far less statistical impact, such as residential segregation.
In the past four years, our two academic professional organizations—the American Political Science Association and the American Educational Research Association—have each dedicated annual meetings to inequality, with numerous papers and speeches denouncing free markets, the decline of unions, and “neoliberalism” generally as exacerbating economic inequality. Yet our searches of the groups’ conference websites fail to turn up a single paper or panel addressing the effects of family change on inequality.
Why isn’t this matter at the center of policy discussions?
…is a psychic injury, not a mental illness.
Legal Abuse Syndrome (LAS), a condition proposed by marriage and family therapist Karin P. Huffer, whose books on the subject of post-traumatic stress stemming from court-mediated violations are Overcoming the Devastation of Legal Abuse Syndrome(1995) and Legal Abuse Syndrome: 8 Steps for Avoiding the Traumatic Stress Caused by the Justice System(2013).
“Develops in individuals assaulted by ethical violations, legal abuses, betrayals, and fraud” and that’s exacerbated by “abuse of power and authority and a profound lack of accountability in our courts.” ~ Karin P. Huffer
Never doubt why so many are working so hard to #fixfamilycourts Every parent starts out equal but does not remain that way in the So-called family courts.
Once you enter that court you feel nothing but attacked. Your life and decisions are no longer your own. Your children are stripped from the life you thought you were protected to live. People in the family court process step in between you and your child regardless of whether you are for or not.
Some like Chris are left with no hope of ever recovering. What do you do when the court you thought would protect you and your child from vicious attacks on your fundamental rights fails you? Where do you turn when you cannot afford justice and when there is no hope for it?
Let’s make 2016 the year of #noexcuses and restore justice and protection in every parent and child’s life. Let’s make 2016 the year of no more lost lives and #fizfamilycourts once and for all! #neverfear#neverforget
Bullied to Death: Chris Mackney’s Kafkaesque Divorce There is no one way or no best way to tell the story of a man driven by others to…Read More
Gary Treistman explains how the Family Court System separated his daughter from him.
Listen to the TRUTH about Family Courts
“The Smoking Gun” …Read More
76. Father’s Open Letter To The Family Courts.
Owen Lucas films his open letter to the court admitting that he is in contempt of court for doing so.
He tells us of his grief and impotence in the face of the family court system.
Owen speaks for so many fathers who find themselves in the palm of ex-partners colluding with a system that in many cases, strips fathers of their homes, their children and their dignity – and often their jobs and financial stability too.
Mothers are given legal aid and fathers are not unless there is already proven child abuse.
In cases where abuse is suspected or even confirmed, a father has no clout to impact the family court system in many cases.
NB. If you know a child is being abused, ensure that a. you take photographs b. you film them speaking of the events and c. you inform the police without delay. These three steps may well be the difference between whether you become alienated from, or the main caregiver to your child/children.
July 16, 2015 by Robert Franklin, Esq, Member, National Board of Directors, National Parents Organization This article isn’t new, but…Read More
My opinion on the origin of mental illness is controversial to many in my profession. I maintain that emotional disturbances are…Read More
Judge Valerie Manno Schurr appointed Mark Meland as a receiver for a company after finding it in “default” for failing to turn over…Read More
Across the country women, children, AND MEN are becoming the victims of judges and the court system. It is time that we take a stand, and…Read More
The death of Christopher Mackney and his suicide note:
The circumstances that conduced to Mr. Mackney’s taking his life are chronicled in a forthcoming book by investigative journalist Michael Volpe, which is titled, Bullied to Death: The Chris Mackney Story.
Both legally and socially, society imposes a multitude of restrictive “shoulds” on its individual members. The “shoulds”, developed over a long period of time, serve as a major vehicle for maintaining order. While they evolve and change, and sometimes allow for limited individual variation, they represent a powerful and ever-present influence on behavior.
One of the ways in which the “shoulds” function is by defining social roles — the what and the how of everyday but important behaviors, like being a spouse, parent, child, employee or neighbor. It has also been society’s practice, however, to further many roles by gender — a spouse is either a husband or wife; a parent, either a father or a mother; a child, either a son or a daughter — and to require particular and different kinds of behaviors, thoughts and feelings from the males and females occupying these roles.
We have heard in some detail from the women’s movement how such sex-stereotyping has limited the potential of women. More recently, men have become increasingly aware that they too are assigned limiting roles which they are expected to fulfill regardless of their individual abilities, interests, physical/emotional constitutions or needs. Men have few or no effective choices in many critical areas of life. They face injustices under the law. And typically they have been handicapped by socially defined “shoulds” in expressing themselves in other than stereotypical ways.
Society has taught us, for example, that a “real” man is strong… courageous… knowledgeable… disciplined… level headed… competitive… successful… in control …unemotional… heterosexual… sexually aggressive… sexually competent… and silent-suffering. A man is also dependent on women for satisfying relationships, for child rearing and for routine home and health maintenance like housekeeping and cooking. All of this and more, society has taught us, constitutes a man’s role privilege or burden as the case may be.
Many men, however, are no longer comfortable with the traditional male role. Emotionally adrift, they are searching for a new identity; yet they find few viable alternatives to traditional masculine behavior (and even these few are narrow and limiting).
Some would argue that America is rapidly becoming a fatherless society, or perhaps more accurately, an absentee father society. The importance and influence of fathers in families has been in significant decline since the Industrial Revolution and is now reaching critical proportions. The near-total absence of male role models has ripped a hole the size of half the population in many urban areas. For example, in Baltimore, only 38 percent of families have two parents, and in St. Louis the portion is 40 percent.
Across time and cultures, fathers have always been considered essential—and not just for their sperm. Indeed, no known society ever thought of fathers as potentially unnecessary.Marriage and the nuclear family—mother, father, and children—are the most universal social institutions in existence. In no society has the birth of children out of wedlock been the cultural norm. To the contrary, concern for the legitimacy of children is nearly universal.
As Alexander Mitscherlich argues in Society Without A Father(link is external), there has been a “progressive loss of the father’s authority and diminution of his power in the family and over the family.”
“If present trends continue, writes David Popenoe (link is external), a professor of sociology at Rutgers University, “the percentage of American children living apart from their biological fathers will reach 50% by the next century.” He argues “this massive erosion of fatherhood contributes mightily to many of the major social problems of our time…Fatherless children have a risk factor of two to three times that of fathered children for a wide range of negative outcomes, including dropping out of high school, giving birth as a teenager and becoming a juvenile delinquent.”
According to David Blankenhorn, author of Fatherless America,(link is external) chair of the National Fatherhood Initiative and founder/president of the Institute for American Values, organization, and research conducted by Popenoe and scores of other researchers:
- Approximately 30% of all American children are born into single-parent homes, and for the black community, that figure is 68%;
- Fatherless children are at a dramatically greater risk of drug and alcohol abuse, mental illness, suicide, poor educational performance, teen pregnancy, and criminality, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics.
- Over half of all children living with a single mother are living in poverty, a rate 5 to 6 times that of kids living with both parents;
- Child abuse is significantly more likely to occur in single parent homes than in intact families;
- 63% of youth suicides are from fatherless homes according to the U.S. Bureau of the Census;
- 72% of adolescent murderers grew up without fathers. 60% of America’s rapists grew up the same way according to a study by D. Cornell (et al.), in Behavioral Sciences and the Law;
- 63% of 1500 CEOs and human resource directors said it was not reasonable for a father to take a leave after the birth of a child;
- 71% of all high school dropouts come from fatherless homes according to the National Principals Association Report on the State of High Schools;
- 80% of rapists motivated with displaced anger come from fatherless homes according to a report in Criminal Justice & Behavior;
- In single-mother families in the U.S. about 66% of young children live in poverty;
- 90% of all homeless and runaway children are from fatherless homes;
- Children from low-income, two-parent families outperform students from high-income, single-parent homes. Almost twice as many high achievers come from two-parent homes as one-parent homes according to a study by the Charles F. Kettering Foundation.
- 85% of all children that exhibit behavioral disorders come from fatherless homes according to a study by the Center for Disease Control;
- Of all violent crimes against women committed by intimates about 65% were committed by either boy-friends or ex-husbands, compared with 9 % by husbands;
- Girls living with non-natal fathers (boyfriends and stepfathers) are at higher risk for sexual abuse than girls living with natal fathers;
- Daughters of single mothers are 53% more likely to marry as teenagers, 111% more likely to have children as teenagers, 164% more likely to have a premarital birth and 92% more likely to dissolve their own marriages.
- A large survey conducted in the late 1980s found that about 20% of divorced fathers had not seen his children in the past year, and that fewer than 50% saw their children more than a few times a year.
- Juvenile crime, the majority of which is committed by males, has increased six-fold since 1992;
- In a longitudinal study of 1,197 fourth-grade students, researchers observed “greater levels of aggression in boys from mother-only households than from boys in mother-father households,” according to a study published in the Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.
- The Scholastic Aptitude Test scores have declined more than 70 points in the past two decades; children in single-parent families tend to score lower on standardized tests and to receive lower grades in school according to a Congressional Research Service Report.
Blankenhorn argues that America is facing not just the loss of fathers, but also the erosion of the ideal of fatherhood. Few people doubt the fundamental importance of mothers, Popenoe comments, but increasingly the question of whether fathers are really necessary is being raised and said by many to be a merely a social role that others-mothers, partners, stepfathers, uncles and aunts, and grandparents can play.
The Fatherless Family – Focus on the Family
It may not be typical to begin a letter by quoting a famous English playwright, but I believe the above statement holds some relevance to the subject at hand. As we begin a new year, I’d like to spend a few minutes addressing the issue of fatherlessness, which has become an increasingly difficult problem in our culture. As many of you already know, Dr. Dobson has written for years about the importance of the traditional family and especially the critical role that fathers play in the lives of young children.
But just how widespread is this problem? Sadly, the answer to this question is discouraging. In fact, the United States leads the world in fatherless families,1 with roughly 24 million children (or 34 percent of all kids in the United States) living in homes where the father does not reside.2 Nearly 40 percent of children in father-absent homes have not seen their dad during the past year,3 and more than half of all fatherless children have never been in their dad’s home.4 The number of children being raised by single mothers has more than tripled between 1960 and 2000.5
As distressing as these figures are, they only tell part of the story. We must never forget that each of those 24 million “statistics” represents an impressionable, fragile child that has been denied the guidance, discipline and example that only a dad can provide. Perhaps I feel so passionately about this issue because I am one of those statistics! I’d like to help put a human face on this issue by taking a moment to discuss how my own life was impacted as a result of my relationship — or lack thereof — with my father.
Unfortunately, my dad’s alcoholism took a dramatic toll on our family. I still have vivid memories of the traumatic experiences that characterized my early years. I can remember hiding in my bedroom, with adrenaline coursing through my veins, while my dad, in a drunken rage, chased my mom around the house with a hammer. He never struck her directly, but the walls of our home were pock-marked with ugly, gaping hammer holes by the time the police arrived to intervene. Although rare, violent outbursts such as that one were almost too much for my young mind to handle.
My parents divorced when I was only 5 years old, and my father’s presence in my life diminished significantly. Mom remarried when I was 9, but our stepfather was no better a role model than my father had been. My mother passed away one year after getting remarried. When my siblings and I arrived back home after her funeral, we found our stepdad with his bags packed. He jumped into a cab with the five of us kids peering at him through the living room window. We never saw him again.
With our mother dead and our stepfather out of the picture and after one year in a foster home, my sister and I moved back in with our birthfather. Unfortunately, dad’s struggles with alcohol had not improved in the years since the divorce. I was 11 years old at this point, and actively involved in Little League in Southern California. Most kids in my position would have been thrilled to have their dad in the stands, cheering them on at a baseball game. However, much to my own embarrassment and humiliation, my father attended a game completely drunk. His offensive, belligerent behavior made it clear to everyone in attendance that he was intoxicated.
One year after we had moved back in with our father, my sister turned 18 and decided to strike out on her own. Since I was only 12, my siblings and other extended family members convened a “family conference” to determine whether or not I should stay with my dad. My older brother had offered to take me in if I so desired, and so the choice was ultimately mine to make. I’ll never forget the feeling of having all of my remaining family members — dad included — looking at me and awaiting my decision. I chose to live with my brother.
During the preceding year, my father had experienced four or five serious drunken episodes, including the aforementioned baseball game debacle. However, my decision to move in with my brother was not primarily the result of the pain and embarrassment that dad had caused me personally. In fact, when I stated my intention to move out during the family conference, my dad asked, “Why?” Without hesitation, I told him, “Because of what you did to Mom.” More than seven years after their divorce, the wounds associated with my dad’s drunken mistreatment of my mother were still fresh in my mind. And so, at only 12 years of age, I moved in with my older brother. A year later, my father died intoxicated and alone in a frozen abandoned building, the victim of exposure.
At this point, it’s very important for me to note that, despite the pain to which my father had subjected our family, I did not hate him. Quite the contrary, I had a childlike affection for my dad. During times of sobriety, he was a loving and gentle man who returned my affection. I believe that the Lord gives children a resilience enabling them to look up to their fathers and to love them even amidst the most difficult of circumstances. Throughout my childhood, I can remember times during which I felt genuine love and kindness from my father, although they were certainly offset by the anger and rage of his drunken episodes. It was difficult for my young mind to reconcile those conflicting emotions, and I know that there are millions of other children who have experienced similar feelings.
Dr. Bill Maier, vice president and child and family psychologist here at Focus on the Family, saw the devastating impact of fatherlessness firsthand during the years he worked at a community mental health clinic in Long Beach, Calif. I asked him to share a bit about that experience as I was preparing to write this letter, and this is what he said:
“Most of the children with whom I worked were low-income kids from single-parent homes. Many of these boys and girls had never met their fathers. Others had dads who were living on the street, involved in gangs, in prison or dead. The young boys, in particular, had an incredible hunger for male attention and affirmation. They cherished the one hour each week that I met with them for their individual counseling session. When I visited them at their public school, their eyes would light up and they would excitedly tell their friends, ‘That’s my COUNSELOR — he’s here to see ME!’ Often, their classmates (who were also fatherless) would gather around and ask, ‘Can you be my counselor, too?’ My heart broke for these children — aching for a man to simply talk to them and take an interest in their lives. Psychiatrist Kyle Pruett at Yale University calls this longing ‘Fatherneed,’ and it perfectly describes what millions of boys and girls in the U.S. experience every day of their lives.”
This “Fatherneed” is clearly what drives many fatherless kids (and remember, there are currently more than 24 million of them in the U.S. alone) to turn to sex, alcohol, crime and the other dangerous and deadly behaviors outlined in the statistics I quoted earlier. It is only by the grace of God that I was not swallowed up by these destructive forces. But make no mistake, the fact that I am currently president of a family ministry, rather than in prison, does not mean that I was not damaged by my father’s behavior. Our chaotic relationship certainly wounded my spirit, to the point that it is difficult to talk about even today. However, I learned at an early age, “that in all things God works for the good of those who love Him…” (Romans 8:28, NIV).
At the same time, I pray that my story might offer hope to the many children who are currently growing up in fatherless homes, and that it will encourage the readers of this letter — particularly men — to take up the baton on their behalf. In the absence of a positive father figure, I credit several male mentors in my life with coming alongside me and helping to turn me from the path of self-destruction. My older brothers, of course, were a source of tremendous encouragement and strength during the years when our relationship with our dad was disintegrating. But I’m also thankful for several Christian football coaches who, during my high school years, served as positive male role models to me. Although I attended a public high school, these men came alongside me and modeled the love of Christ in a way that contributed significantly to my own emotional and spiritual development. I’m truly grateful that God introduced these wise and godly men into my life during a time of such critical need.
A discussion of this nature inevitably brings to my mind the heroic efforts of the many single parents in our midst who quietly and admirably lead their families. Theirs is a heavy burden. If you are a single mother or father, we applaud your devotion and unfailing commitment to your precious and beloved children. As with all of us, the Lord will sustain you regardless of circumstance, if you place your trust in Him.
What about you? Because we have already established that the problem of fatherlessness is so widespread, I would be very surprised if there isn’t a child — or two, or three, or four — perhaps outside your immediate family but within your own circle of influence who could use a positive male presence in his or her life. I hope you’ll prayerfully consider reaching out to these kids who don’t have someone that they can call “dad.” They might look happy and whole on the outside, but I can assure you — without a positive male mentor, a very significant piece of the puzzle is missing. Perhaps God is asking you to be that missing piece.
You might be thinking, “I don’t have the hours in my day or the expertise necessary to make that kind of commitment.” However, mentoring doesn’t always have to involve the huge investment of time and energy that you might think. You don’t have to go to college to obtain a four-year “mentoring degree” in order to make a positive impact on children around you! Ample opportunities exist to simply share what you know with fatherless kids, whether in church, or through nonprofit organizations such as the Boy Scouts, or through your own child’s school, and so on. Even investing an hour a week with a child — taking her out for ice cream with your family, helping him with his math homework, sharing Scripture and ultimately just loving him or her — can make a world of difference. It certainly did in my life.
In his book Bringing Up Boys, Dr. Dobson compiled a list of additional ideas for those who wish to invest themselves in the lives of children — and particularly males — who don’t have a father figure at home. I have included that excerpt below; perhaps it will provide you with some food for thought as you consider how you might become involved in this issue.
As a single mother, you must make an all-out effort to find a father-substitute for your boys. An uncle or a neighbor or a coach or a musical director or a Sunday-school teacher may do the trick. Placing your boy under the influence of such a man for even a single hour per week can make a great difference. Get them involved in Boy Scouts, Boy’s Club, soccer or Little League. Give your boys biographies, and take them to movies or rent videos that focus on strong masculine (but moral) heroes.6
It should be noted that, while the primary caregivers in 84 percent of single-parent homes are mothers,7 there is also a significant number of single fathers out there who are struggling to raise children on their own. If your family knows one of these hard-working dads, you might also want to think about how you could come alongside him and his children. Motherless daughters, in particular, could benefit greatly from the influence of a Christian family and a godly wife and mother.
Before closing, we should also remember the many children in the United States and around the world who are both “fatherless” and “motherless.” Now, more than ever, the privilege of adoption is something that Christians, in particular, need to consider. This is an especially important point during Sanctity of Human Life month in January, when we remember the millions of babies who have been lost through the tragedy of abortion. For an orphaned or abandoned child, being adopted into a loving, intact family can literally mean the difference between life and death. As followers of Christ, there can be no higher calling than for us to extend our hands to one of “the least of these” — the overlooked and marginalized in our society — and invite him or her into our home as a son or daughter. After all, in a very real sense, that is what God has done for each of us through His own Son, Jesus Christ.
For more information and resources on mentoring, adoption and single parenting, please visit Focus on the Family’s Web site at http://www.family.org or call us at (800) A-FAMILY (232-6459). Looking back on 2005 and ahead to 2006, we are grateful for your generous support. Your ongoing partnership allows us to help the number of families we hope to reach in the months to come.
More than anything, we covet your prayers as we endeavor not only to reach out to children from broken homes, but to strengthen marriages and families so that the crises and trials that lead to divorce and familial disintegration are averted in the first place! Please pray, too, for the millions of fatherless children discussed in this letter — and the many millions more all over the world — that desperately need someone to take an interest in them. We know from Scripture that, “The Lord your God … defends the cause of the fatherless and the widow” (Deuteronomy 10:17-18). Perhaps He wants to use you and your family as a means of fulfilling that promise!
On behalf of Dr. Dobson and everyone here at Focus, a happy new year to you and yours. May God’s richest blessings surround you in 2006.
President and CEO
Men’s stories as read by Stacy King
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Stacy King has been running an unusual experiment: since people frequently refuse to listen or take it seriously when men tell their own tales, what if a woman reads their words for them?
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Target 2016 to make as many e-mail, phone in and snail mail correspondence with the politicians as possible to see who puts Family Justice and Child Welfare at the top of their political agenda! So e-mail, write and call a radio call in TODAY! (See below)
First Lady Michelle Obama
THEY CAN ADD MY NAME ………………